Smooth Edges Tutorialrule The Rail Models !

Posted : admin On 8/23/2021

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Fit against the inside edge of the stock rails. When aligned for the straight route, the switch-point rail makes a smooth tangent because of a small bend in that stock rail. When aligned for the diverging route, the other switch-point rail makes a small angle with the straight stock rail, which is called the “point angle.”.

This article is from Issue 21 of Woodcraft Magazine.

Because biscuit joints are easy to mark out and quick to cut, using one almost seems like cheating. In truth, biscuits may not be as strong as some traditional types of joinery and may not be suitable for heavy-duty loads, but they’re perfect for plenty of projects. Woodworkers and carpenters have been employing biscuits to successfully solve all sorts of assembly and alignment problems for over two decades. The easiest way to appreciate their versatility and strengths is by putting them to use.

The safest way to cut biscuit slots is with a biscuit joiner. This tool is designed to do nothing but plunge-cut arc-shaped slots. (Unlike the router/biscuit-cutting bit combo, the biscuit joiner’s cutter retracts inside the tool as you pull it away from your work.) From there, a flat, football-shaped piece of compressed wood, called a biscuit, fits into a pair of matching slots.

What makes biscuits better than dowels? The size and shape of the slot. The oversized slot lets the biscuit move slightly, enabling you to tweak parts into perfect alignment. However, once glued, the biscuits swell and lock the parts in place.

You can master basic biscuit joiner use in five minutes, but you will continue to learn new tricks with each project. Following are some common joints that you can practice making to familiarize yourself with a new tool or get better reacquainted with your old workhorse.

begin with the two slot test

A biscuit joiner should cut a slot slightly deeper than half the width of the biscuit you’re trying to fit. This space provides some wiggle room, but still ensures that about half remains on each side of the joint. Here’s how to check your joiner’s depth setting. First, make a test slot. Next, stick in a biscuit and mark a pencil line where the biscuit touches the wood, as shown in Photo 1. Now flip the biscuit and mark a second line. Adjust the depth-setting dial on your tool so that overlap is about 1/8', as shown in Photo 2.

THE face-TO-edge BISCUIT JOINT

To cut the biscuit slots for the shelf, draw a pencil line across the inside face of the side and clamp the edge of the shelf against the line. Next, mark your biscuit slot marks on the top of the shelf. Resting the biscuit joiner on its base, place it on the side and cut the slot for the shelf as in Photo C. The base also serves as your reference when slotting the sides. Turn the joiner on its head, use the line engraved on the bottom of the tool to align it with your slot marks, and plunge it into the side, Photo D. Once cut, insert biscuits into the grooves and flip the shelf up on the location line.

Stick the board’s end over the edge of your bench so that the fence, not the tool’s base, sets the slot depth.

Balance the biscuit joiner’s fence on the end of the side panel to cut the grooves in the face.

Face-to-edge joints are the bread-and-butter joint for biscuit joiners. A biscuit joiner can cut the needed joints to assemble a cabinet in about as much time as it takes to drag a heavy sheet of MDF to your table saw.

Building a simple box provides a good opportunity to explore the advantages and disadvantages of fence- or base-guided slot cutting. Sometimes, you’ll have the freedom to choose the method, but sometimes the decision is made for you. Box-making uses both.

First, position the side and end panels together and draw lines across the joint to mark where you want a biscuit. (As a rule of thumb, place the biscuits about 6' apart.) When you pull the panels apart, you should see marks on the edges and ends.

To cut the grooves in the edge of the end panel, place the work flat on the workbench, as shown in Photo A. Adjust the fence so that the blade cuts a slot roughly through the center of your work. To cut the face grooves in the side, you’ll balance the fence on the panel’s edge as shown in Photo B.

Remove or retract the fence and use the joiner’s base to cut the slots in the end of the shelf.

Don’t move your wood; just flip your joiner so that the base rides against the shelf. Plunge the joiner into the side.

Biscuit Sizes

To cut grooves for most of the biscuit sizes (0, 10, 20), simply adjust the stop on your biscuit joiner. Smaller FF (or face frame) biscuits are available for the Porter-Cable biscuit joiner. To use these mini biscuits, you’ll need to switch out the standard 4' dia. cutter with a smaller 2' dia. blade.

THE END-TO-EDGE AND MITERED BISCUIT JOINTS

Biscuits are also an easy way to build mitered and end-to-edge frames that you would use for picture frames or for a cabinet’s face frame. In this case, biscuits are very useful because they are adding reinforcement to otherwise weak end-grain joints.

Start by selecting the right biscuit. An easy way to do this is to position the joint together then arrange one or more biscuits on top. Drawing a center line on a test biscuit can help you lay out the slots as shown in Photo E. Wider biscuits provide more strength (even if you saw off an end), but there are times when you want the biscuit to be hidden within the joint. When form is as important as function, use the Biscuit Sizing Chart on page 13. When picking a biscuit, don’t forget the wiggle room. The slot is usually about 3/16' wider than the biscuit you’re trying to fit.

When slotting narrow pieces, don’t hand-hold the stock. Because a portion of the blade will be exposed while making the cut, and since the spinning blade can “walk” if the tool or work isn’t properly held in place, it’s too easy to get hurt. Eliminating the risk of a visit to the ER is easy: simply clamp narrow pieces to a stopblock as shown in Photo F.

You can now align the center mark on the joiner with the marks on your stock and make the cut. After making the cuts, glue the biscuits into their slots and clamp the frame together. Once the glue has dried, you can slice off the protruding biscuit tip as in Photo G.

Position the bigger biscuit so that it won’t protrude into the visible inside edge of the frame.

Use clamps and extra backup, not your free hand, when cutting narrow stock.

Saw off the biscuit tip with a handsaw or using your table saw and crosscut sled.

Double-Biscuit Joinery

Biscuits don’t fare well when matched against other joints in wood-joint torture tests. Because biscuits are relatively short, it doesn’t take a rocket scientist to realize that this joint isn’t as strong as traditional mortise-and-tenon or half-lap joints.

An easy way to strengthen a biscuit joint is to cut two grooves, as shown at right. In seconds, you’ve doubled the gluing area of the joint. Try to leave a ¼'- to ½'-strip of wood between the biscuits to maximize available gluing surfaces and preserve the strength of the wood. (With careful spacing, you can use the double-biscuit technique on a ¾'-thick rail and stile joint.)

To cut the grooves, I prefer to use spacers instead of my fence. Referencing the joiner and working against my bench is fast, and for those times when I forget to cut a slot, easily repeatable.

face miters

Face miters are A way to hide end-and edge-grain when making solid wood boxes or plywood cabinets, but long miters are tough to glue and tricky to reinforce. A few biscuits can solve both problems. They can register the ends so that the corners can’t slip during clamp-up and strengthen the otherwise end-grain joint. A biscuit-reinforced miter is as strong as a full table saw-cut spline, but biscuits can be hidden within the miter for a cleaner-looking joint. (With the table saw, you cut the spline from edge to edge.)

To cut a slot in an angled edge, use your fence. How you cut the slots in the mitered face depends on the fence-adjustment flexibility of your biscuit joiner and your working style. If your router has a fixed fence (or if you prefer working with your workpiece flat against your bench) you will want to try making your cuts as shown in Photo H. Set your fence to 45°, adjust the cutter depth so that it doesn’t slice through the thinner tip of your miter, and make a plunge cut into the end.

Some joiners, like the Porter-Cable 557 (see the Buying Guide) have a two-stage fence that can reference the outer face of the miter as shown in Photo I. This design prevents corner alignment problems, especially if the stock thicknesses aren’t equal. The wrap-around style of this fence also makes it easier to hold the tool in place while making the cut.

Adjust the fence height or add a shim so that the blade does not cut through the tip of the miter.

When the fence is set to 135°, you can squeeze the joiner against the miter as you cut the biscuit slot.

offset joinery

There are times, as when joining a rail to a leg where you may not want a flush-fitting joint. Your biscuit joinser is equally adept at creating offsets. The trick is to use a spacer that the same thickness as your desired step back. The spacer-offset trick can be used with your biscuit joiner’s fence, or under the base of the tool, as shown here. (I think resting the joiner on top of a large hardboard spacer is alot easier than trying to sandwich the spacer between the work and biscuit joiner’s fence.)

To make the offset joint, mark the leg and apron for the biscuit slot just as before. Now choose a spacer that is the same thickness as your desired offset.

Position the spacer under the jointer as shown in Photo J, position the leg with the show face against the bench and cut the slot. To cut the matching slot in the apron, simply remove the spacer and slot the end of the board as shown in Photo K. Be sure the show face is touching the bench.

Place a spacer under the joiner to raise the slot and set the height of the offset.
Slot the mating piece without a spacer. The biscuits will create the offset on the workbench-touching face.

THE EDGE-TO-EDGE BISCUIT JOINT

You might want to think twice before using biscuits for solid-wood edge joints (See “Biscuits or No Biscuits?”). but biscuits are very useful for attaching solid wood edging to sheet goods, and also when you need to straighten out bowed boards. With practice, you may be able to biscuit an edge joint in less time than it takes to read how it’s done.

To start, position the boards edge-to-edge, then make short pencil lines across the joints about every 8' for the slots, as shown in Photo L. Make the first and last slots at least 3' in from the end; that way, you won’t accidentally expose a biscuit if you trim the panel later.

Next, set the joiner’s fence height to cut a slot roughly in the center of the board. To ensure that the joiner’s fence is setting the slot height, and not the base, clamp the board so that the edge sticks off your bench as shown in Photo M. Let the cutter reach full speed before plunging it into the wood.

You’re now ready for glue-up. Because the biscuits swell quickly, do a dry assembly and make sure everything’s set before you open the glue bottle (Photo N). Remove any sawdust from the slots, test-fit your biscuits, and dry-assemble the panel. If everything fits like it should, you’re set to reassemble it for good with glue.

Keep the fence flat on the board surface when cutting slots.

Use a biscuit-slot bottle to quickly squeeze glue into the slots.

  • 1910
  • Part Number Title:
    Occupational Safety and Health Standards
  • 1910 Subpart D
  • Subpart Title:
    Walking-Working Surfaces
  • Title:
    Fall protection systems and falling object protection-criteria and practices.
1910.29(a)
1910.29(a)(1)
Ensure each fall protection system and falling object protection, other than personal fall protection systems, that this part requires meets the requirements in this section. The employer must ensure each personal fall protection system meets the requirements in subpart I of this part; and
1910.29(a)(2)
Provide and install all fall protection systems and falling object protection this subpart requires, and comply with the other requirements in this subpart before any employee begins work that necessitates fall or falling object protection.
1910.29(b)
Guardrail systems. The employer must ensure guardrail systems meet the following requirements:
1910.29(b)(1)

The top edge height of top rails, or equivalent guardrail system members, are 42 inches (107 cm), plus or minus 3 inches (8 cm), above the walking-working surface. The top edge height may exceed 45 inches (114 cm), provided the guardrail system meets all other criteria of paragraph (b) of this section (see Figure D–11 of this section).

1910.29(b)(2)
Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, or equivalent intermediate members are installed between the walking-working surface and the top edge of the guardrail system as follows when there is not a wall or parapet that is at least 21 inches (53 cm) high:
1910.29(b)(2)(i)
Midrails are installed at a height midway between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking-working surface;
1910.29(b)(2)(ii)
Screens and mesh extend from the walking-working surface to the top rail and along the entire opening between top rail supports;
1910.29(b)(2)(iii)
Intermediate vertical members (such as balusters) are installed no more than 19 inches (48 cm) apart; and
1910.29(b)(2)(iv)
Other equivalent intermediate members (such as additional midrails and architectural panels) are installed so that the openings are not more than 19 inches (48 cm) wide.
1910.29(b)(3)
Guardrail systems are capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds (890 N) applied in a downward or outward direction within 2 inches (5 cm) of the top edge, at any point along the top rail.
1910.29(b)(4)
When the 200-pound (890-N) test load is applied in a downward direction, the top rail of the guardrail system must not deflect to a height of less than 39 inches (99 cm) above the walking-working surface.
1910.29(b)(5)
Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, and other equivalent intermediate members are capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 150 pounds (667 N) applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the intermediate member.
1910.29(b)(6)
Guardrail systems are smooth-surfaced to protect employees from injury, such as punctures or lacerations, and to prevent catching or snagging of clothing.
1910.29(b)(7)
The ends of top rails and midrails do not overhang the terminal posts, except where the overhang does not pose a projection hazard for employees.
1910.29(b)(8)
Steel banding and plastic banding are not used for top rails or midrails.
1910.29(b)(9)
Top rails and midrails are at least 0.25-inches (0.6 cm) in diameter or in thickness.
1910.29(b)(10)
When guardrail systems are used at hoist areas, a removable guardrail section, consisting of a top rail and midrail, are placed across the access opening between guardrail sections when employees are not performing hoisting operations. The employer may use chains or gates instead of a removable guardrail section at hoist areas if the employer demonstrates the chains or gates provide a level of safety equivalent to guardrails.
1910.29(b)(11)
When guardrail systems are used around holes, they are installed on all unprotected sides or edges of the hole.
1910.29(b)(12)
For guardrail systems used around holes through which materials may be passed:
1910.29(b)(12)(i)
When materials are being passed through the hole, not more than two sides of the guardrail system are removed; and
1910.29(b)(12)(ii)
When materials are not being passed through the hole, the hole must be guarded by a guardrail system along all unprotected sides or edges or closed over with a cover.
1910.29(b)(13)
When guardrail systems are used around holes that serve as points of access (such as ladderways), the guardrail system opening:
1910.29(b)(13)(i)
Has a self-closing gate that slides or swings away from the hole, and is equipped with a top rail and midrail or equivalent intermediate member that meets the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section; or
1910.29(b)(13)(ii)
Is offset to prevent an employee from walking or falling into the hole;
1910.29(b)(14)
Guardrail systems on ramps and runways are installed along each unprotected side or edge.
1910.29(b)(15)

Manila or synthetic rope used for top rails or midrails are inspected as necessary to ensure that the rope continues to meet the strength requirements in paragraphs (b)(3) and (5) of this section.

Note to paragraph (b) of this section: The criteria and practices requirements for guardrail systems on scaffolds are contained in 29 CFR part 1926, subpart L.

Figure D-11 -- Guard Rail Systems.

1910.29(c)
Safety net systems. The employer must ensure each safety net system meets the requirements in 29 CFR part 1926, subpart M.
1910.29(d)(1)
When the employer uses a designated area, the employer must ensure:
1910.29(d)(1)(i)
Employees remain within the designated area while work operations are underway; and
1910.29(d)(1)(ii)
The perimeter of the designated area is delineated with a warning line consisting of a rope, wire, tape, or chain that meets the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section.
1910.29(d)(2)
1910.29(d)(2)(i)
Has a minimum breaking strength of 200 pounds (0.89 kN);
1910.29(d)(2)(ii)
Is installed so its lowest point, including sag, is not less than 34 inches (86 cm) and not more than 39 inches (99 cm) above the walking-working surface;
1910.29(d)(2)(iii)
Is supported in such a manner that pulling on one section of the line will not result in slack being taken up in adjacent sections causing the line to fall below the limits specified in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section;
1910.29(d)(2)(iv)
Is clearly visible from a distance of 25 feet (7.6 m) away, and anywhere within the designated area;
1910.29(d)(2)(v)
Is erected as close to the work area as the task permits; and
1910.29(d)(2)(vi)
Is erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) from the roof edge for work that is both temporary and infrequent, or not less than 15 feet (4.6 m) for other work.
1910.29(d)(3)
When mobile mechanical equipment is used to perform work that is both temporary and infrequent in a designated area, the employer must ensure the warning line is erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 m) from the unprotected side or edge that is parallel to the direction in which the mechanical equipment is operated, and not less than 10 feet (3 m) from the unprotected side or edge that is perpendicular to the direction in which the mechanical equipment is operated.
1910.29(e)
Covers. The employer must ensure each cover for a hole in a walking-working surface:
1910.29(e)(1)
Is capable of supporting without failure, at least twice the maximum intended load that may be imposed on the cover at any one time; and

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1910.29(e)(2)
1910.29(f)
Handrails and stair rail systems. The employer must ensure:
1910.29(f)(1)
1910.29(f)(1)(i)
Handrails are not less than 30 inches (76 cm) and not more than 38 inches (97 cm), as measured from the leading edge of the stair tread to the top surface of the handrail (see Figure D-12 of this section).

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1910.29(f)(1)(ii)
The height of stair rail systems meets the following:
1910.29(f)(1)(ii)(A)
The height of stair rail systems installed before January 17, 2017 is not less than 30 inches (76 cm) from the leading edge of the stair tread to the top surface of the top rail; and
1910.29(f)(1)(ii)(B)
The height of stair rail systems installed on or after January 17, 2017 is not less than 42 inches (107 cm) from the leading edge of the stair tread to the top surface of the top rail.
1910.29(f)(1)(iii)
The top rail of a stair rail system may serve as a handrail only when:
1910.29(f)(1)(iii)(A)
The height of the stair rail system is not less than 36 inches (91 cm) and not more than 38 inches (97 cm) as measured at the leading edge of the stair tread to the top surface of the top rail (see Figure D-13 of this section); and
1910.29(f)(1)(iii)(B)
The top rail of the stair rail system meets the other handrail requirements in paragraph (f) of this section.
1910.29(f)(2)
Finger clearance. The minimum clearance between handrails and any other object is 2.25 inches (5.7 cm).
1910.29(f)(3)
Surfaces. Handrails and stair rail systems are smooth-surfaced to protect employees from injury, such as punctures or lacerations, and to prevent catching or snagging of clothing.
1910.29(f)(4)
Openings in stair rails. No opening in a stair rail system exceeds 19 inches (48 cm) at its least dimension.
1910.29(f)(5)
Handhold. Handrails have the shape and dimension necessary so that employees can grasp the handrail firmly.
1910.29(f)(6)
Projection hazards. The ends of handrails and stair rail systems do not present any projection hazards.
1910.29(f)(7)

Strength criteria. Handrails and the top rails of stair rail systems are capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds (890 N) applied in any downward or outward direction within 2 inches (5 cm) of any point along the top edge of the rail.

Free download rk launcher full version with crack. Figure D-12 -- Handrail Measurement.

Figure D-13 - Combination Handrail and Stair Rail

1910.29(g)

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Cages, wells, and platforms used with fixed ladders. The employer must ensure:
1910.29(g)(1)
Cages and wells installed on fixed ladders are designed, constructed, and maintained to permit easy access to, and egress from, the ladder that they enclose (see Figures D-14 and D-15 of this section);

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1910.29(g)(2)
Cages and wells are continuous throughout the length of the fixed ladder, except for access, egress, and other transfer points;
1910.29(g)(3)
Cages and wells are designed, constructed, and maintained to contain employees in the event of a fall, and to direct them to a lower landing; and
1910.29(g)(4)

Platforms used with fixed ladders provide a horizontal surface of at least 24 inches by 30 inches (61 cm by 76 cm).

Note to paragraph (g): Section 1910.28 establishes the requirements that employers must follow on the use of cages and wells as a means of fall protection.

Figure D-14 -- Clearances for Fixed Ladders in Wells.

Figure D-15 -- Example of General Construction of Cages.

1910.29(h)
Outdoor advertising. This paragraph (h) applies only to employers engaged in outdoor advertising operations (see §1910.28(b)(10)). Employers must ensure that each employee who climbs a fixed ladder without fall protection:
1910.29(h)(1)
Is physically capable, as demonstrated through observations of actual climbing activities or by a physical examination, to perform the duties that may be assigned, including climbing fixed ladders without fall protection;
1910.29(h)(2)
Has successfully completed a training or apprenticeship program that includes hands-on training on the safe climbing of ladders and is retrained as necessary to maintain the necessary skills;
1910.29(h)(3)
Has the skill to climb ladders safely, as demonstrated through formal classroom training or on-the-job training, and performance observation; and
1910.29(h)(4)
Performs climbing duties as a part of routine work activity.
1910.29(i)
1910.29(i)(1)
Each ladder safety system allows the employee to climb up and down using both hands and does not require that the employee continuously hold, push, or pull any part of the system while climbing;
1910.29(i)(2)
The connection between the carrier or lifeline and the point of attachment to the body harness or belt does not exceed 9 inches (23 cm);
1910.29(i)(3)
Mountings for rigid carriers are attached at each end of the carrier, with intermediate mountings spaced, as necessary, along the entire length of the carrier so the system has the strength to stop employee falls;
1910.29(i)(4)
Mountings for flexible carriers are attached at each end of the carrier and cable guides for flexible carriers are installed at least 25 feet (7.6 m) apart but not more than 40 feet (12.2 m) apart along the entire length of the carrier;
1910.29(i)(5)
The design and installation of mountings and cable guides does not reduce the design strength of the ladder; and
1910.29(i)(6)
Ladder safety systems and their support systems are capable of withstanding, without failure, a drop test consisting of an 18-inch (41-cm) drop of a 500-pound (227-kg) weight.
1910.29(j)
Personal fall protection systems. Body belts, harnesses, and other components used in personal fall arrest systems, work positioning systems, and travel restraint systems must meet the requirements of §1910.140.
1910.29(k)
1910.29(k)(1)
The employers must ensure toeboards used for falling object protection:
1910.29(k)(1)(i)
Are erected along the exposed edge of the overhead walking-working surface for a length that is sufficient to protect employees below.
1910.29(k)(1)(ii)
Have a minimum vertical height of 3.5 inches (9 cm) as measured from the top edge of the toeboard to the level of the walking-working surface.
1910.29(k)(1)(iii)
Do not have more than a 0.25-inch (0.5-cm) clearance or opening above the walking-working surface.
1910.29(k)(1)(iv)
Are solid or do not have any opening that exceeds 1 inch (3 cm) at its greatest dimension.
1910.29(k)(1)(v)
Have a minimum height of 2.5 inches (6 cm) when used around vehicle repair, service, or assembly pits. Toeboards may be omitted around vehicle repair, service, or assembly pits when the employer can demonstrate that a toeboard would prevent access to a vehicle that is over the pit.
1910.29(k)(1)(vi)
Are capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds (222 N) applied in any downward or outward direction at any point along the toeboard.
Rail
1910.29(k)(2)
1910.29(k)(2)(i)
Where tools, equipment, or materials are piled higher than the top of the toeboard, paneling or screening is installed from the toeboard to the midrail of the guardrail system and for a length that is sufficient to protect employees below. If the items are piled higher than the midrail, the employer also must install paneling or screening to the top rail and for a length that is sufficient to protect employees below; and
1910.29(k)(2)(ii)
All openings in guardrail systems are small enough to prevent objects from falling through the opening.
1910.29(k)(3)
The employer must ensure canopies used for falling object protection are strong enough to prevent collapse and to prevent penetration by falling objects.
1910.29(l)
Grab handles. The employer must ensure each grab handle:
1910.29(l)(1)
1910.29(l)(2)
Is mounted to provide at least 3 inches (8 cm) of clearance from the framing or opening; and
1910.29(l)(3)
Is capable of withstanding a maximum horizontal pull-out force equal to two times the maximum intended load or 200 pounds (890 N), whichever is greater.

[81 FR 82994-82998, Nov. 18, 2016; 84 FR 68796, Dec. 17, 2019]