Lithospheregeography

Posted : admin On 8/22/2021
  • The word lithosphere is derived from two Greek words, Lithos, meaning rocky and Sphere meaning rigid. Every rocky planet has a lithosphere. The lithosphere is the outermost shell of the planet earth, which consists of the crust and the upper mantle. The upper mantle behaves elastically over thousands of.
  • Los Angeles Harbor College - 1111 Figueroa Place, Wilmington, CA 90744 - Tel: 310.233.4000 WEB ADMINISTRATOR - Use of Computing Facilities- LACCD.edu - Last Updated: 2/21/17.
  • The planet's water doesn't exist in a static environment, it changes form as it moves through the hydrological cycle. It falls to the earth in the form of rain, seeps into underground aquifers, rises to the surface from springs or seeps from porous rock, and flows from small streams into larger rivers that empty into lakes, seas, and oceans, where some of it evaporates into the atmosphere to.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

In this article we will discuss about the endogenic and exogenic geomorphic processes.

The earth’s surface is being continuously sub­jected to external forces originating within the earth’s atmosphere and by internal forces from within the earth. The external forces are known as exogenic forces and the internal forces are known as endog­enic forces.

Lithosphere Geography MCQs for CSS Paper Preparation available on GeekMCQ.

The actions of exogenic forces result in wearing down (degradation) of relief/elevations and filling up (aggradation) of basins/depressions, on the earth’s surface. The phenomenon of wearing down of relief variations of the surface of the earth through erosion is known as gradation.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

The endogenic and exogenic forces causing physical stresses and chemical actions on earth materials and bringing about changes in the configuration of the surface of the earth are known as geomorphic processes.

Diastrophism and volcanism are endogenic geo­morphic processes. Weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition are exogenic geomorphic processes. Any exogenic element of nature (like water, ice, wind etc.,) capable of acquiring and transporting earth mate­rials can be called a geomorphic agent. When these elements of nature become mobile due to gradients, they remove the materials and transport them over slopes and deposit them at lower level.

Gravity besides being a directional force activating all downslope movements of matter also causes stresses on the earth’s materials. Indirect gravitational stresses activate wave and tide induced currents and winds. Without gravity and gradients there would be no mobility and hence no erosion, transportation and deposition are possible.

So, gravitational stresses are as important as the other geomorphic processes. Gravity is the force that is keeping us in contact with the surface and it is the force that switches on the movement of all surface material on earth. All the movements either within the earth or on the surface of the earth occur due to gradients—from higher levels to lower levels, from high pressure to low pressure areas etc.

Endogenic Processes:

The energy emanating from within the earth is the main force behind endogenic geomorphic processes. This energy is mostly generated by radio­activity, rotational and tidal friction and primordial heat from the origin of the earth.

Exogenic Processes:

The exogenic processes derive their energy from atmosphere determined by the ultimate energy from the sun and also the gradients created by tectonic factors. Gravitational force acts upon all earth materials having a sloping surface and tend to produce movement of matter in down slope direction. Force applied per unit area is called stress. Stress is produced in a solid by pushing or pulling. This induces deformation.

Forces acting along the faces of earth materials are shear stresses (separating forces). It is this stress that breaks rocks and other earth materials. All the exogenic geomorphic processes are covered under a general term, denudation.

The word ‘denude’ means to strip off or to uncover. Weathering, mass wasting/ movements, erosion and transportation are included in denudation. As there are different climatic regions on the earth’s surface owing to thermal gradients cre­ated by latitudinal, seasonal, land and water spread variations, the exogenic geomorphic processes vary from region to region.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

Within different climatic regions there may be local variations of the effects of different climatic elements due to altitudinal differences, aspect variations and the variation in the amount of insolation received by north and south facing slopes as compared to east and west facing slopes.

Further, due to differences in wind velocities and directions, amount and kind of precipitation, its intensity, the relation between precipitation and evaporation, daily range of temperature, freezing and thawing frequency, depth of frost penetration, the geomorphic processes vary within any climatic region. The effects of most of the exogenic geomorphic processes are small and slow and may be imperceptible in a short time span, but will in the long run affect the rocks severely due to continued fatigue.

Biological Activity and Weathering:

Biological weathering is contribution to or removal of minerals and ions from the weathering environment and physical changes due to growth or movement of organisms. Burrowing and wedging by organisms like earthworms, termites, rodents etc., help in exposing the new surfaces to chemical attack and assists in the penetration of moisture and air.

Apple macbook air user manual. Significance of Weathering:

Weathering processes are responsible for breaking down the rocks into smaller fragments and preparing the way for formation of not only regolith and soils, but also erosion and mass movements. Biomes and biodiversity is basically a result of forests (vegetation) and forests depend upon the depth of weathering mantles. Weathering of rocks and deposits helps in the enrichment and concentrations of certain valuable ores of iron, manganese, aluminium, copper etc., which are of great importance for the national economy.

Study notes
  • Levels: AS, A Level
  • Exam boards: AQA, Edexcel, OCR, IB, Eduqas, WJEC
Share:
Share by email
Lithospheregeography

Water is stored in three states: as liquid water in the oceans, river and lakes; as ice; and as atmospheric moisture in the form of gaseous water vapour. Water is cycled between key stores by a variety of processes at different rates of flux.

Liquid water storage (Hydrosphere): This storage accounts for 96.5% of all water on earth. Processes impacting upon this important store include runoff and precipitation inputting water to the store and evaporation moving water from the ocean into the atmospheric store. These changes have minimal impact upon the storage capacity, however long term climatic change events such as ice ages do have the potential to lower the storage capacity significantly.

Ice storage (Cryosphere): This storage accounts for 1.7% of all water on earth. Processes impacting upon the store include precipitation (as snow) and outputs include ice melt. Major stores include the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, polar sea ice and mountain glaciers. Annual changes to ice coverage have minimal impact upon storage capacity. However, as with the hydrospheric storage, during ice ages cryospheric storage increases and during warmer inter-glacials it reduces.

Bedrock storage (Lithosphere): This storage also accounts for 1.7% of all water on earth. Whilst the level of storage capacity is low, this store captures water for the longest periods of time. Water can flow through the lithosphere into underground aquifers but this transfer may be relatively slow, often taking many years. Some water is stored within bedding planes, joints and pores in rocks and can remain there for hundreds of years.

Atmospheric moisture storage (Atmosphere): This storage accounts for 0.001% of water on earth. Water is removed from water surfaces through evaporation and is then stored temporarily as water vapour and condensation before being released back to earth as precipitation. Additionally, transpiration from plants releases water vapour into the atmosphere.

These four dominant ‘spheres’ are supplemented by two others that have a role: the Biosphere (all living things, including plants and animals) and the Pedosphere (the soil layer that contains both organic carbon as soil bacteria and remains of plants, and non-organic carbon from infiltration by acidic rain).

Share:
Share by email

Andy Day

Andy recently finished being a classroom geographer after 35 years at two schools in East Yorkshire as head of geography, head of the humanities faculty and director of the humanities specialism. He has written extensively about teaching and geography - with articles in the TES, Geography GCSE Wideworld and Teaching Geography.

  • Water and Carbon Cycles Revision Study Notes for A Level Geography

    Collections

  • Water wars: how access to fresh water is fueling tensions

    23rd March 2019

  • Water in the Anthropocene

    15th October 2017

Online course

Grade Booster Digital+ Autumn 2020Edexcel A-Level Geography

  • 5-10 hours learning time
  • 20 videos, downloads and activities

What Is The Lithosphere

All students preparing for mock exams, other assessments and the summer exams for Edexcel A-Level Geography.

Lithosphere Geography Definition

Edexcel A-Level Geography
  • Paper 2 Revision Question Cards for AQA GCSE (9-1) Geography

    • SKU: 05-4130-30218-01
    • Printed Edition

    • Student personal license

    • £4.95(+VAT)
    Paper 2 Revision Question Cards for AQA GCSE (9-1) Geography

    Paper 2 Revision Question Cards for AQA GCSE (9-1) Geography

    • SKU: 05-4130-30218-01
    • Printed Edition

    • £4.95(+VAT)
  • Paper 1 Revision Question Cards for AQA GCSE (9-1) Geography

    • SKU: 05-4130-30217-01
    • Printed Edition

    • Student personal license

    • £4.95(+VAT)
    Paper 1 Revision Question Cards for AQA GCSE (9-1) Geography

    Paper 1 Revision Question Cards for AQA GCSE (9-1) Geography

    • SKU: 05-4130-30217-01
    • Printed Edition

    • £4.95(+VAT)

Higher Geography Lithosphere Notes

Lithospheregeography

Advertise your vacancies with tutor2u

Much cheaper & more effective than TES or the Guardian. Reach the audience you really want to apply for your teaching vacancy by posting directly to our website and related social media audiences.

Advertise your teaching jobs with tutor2u